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Extra info for 61.Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Detection of these emissions via a hydrophone (25) offers a means of remotely assessing the level of cavitation activity within insonified material and often correlates with a variety of mechanical and chemical effects associated with cavitation. The initial ‘‘mother’’ bubble may break down at this point into a small cloud of microbubbles, known as ‘‘daughter’’ bubbles, which come from the original mother bubble. With continued acoustic stimulation, the process of bubble growth and eventual destruction resumes.
137) explored the possibility that ultrasound applied simultaneously with the introduction of liposomes could release therapeutic chemicals from long-circulating liposomes in a targeted fashion, and also could enhance the therapeutic power of those chemicals at the same time. In this combined in vitro and in vivo experiment with doxorubicin (a porphyrin), the researchers found that the chemicals are delivered preferentially into tumors that are insonified and that the ultrasound enhances the action of doxorubicin.
Ultrasound-Affected Transport across Biological Barriers Individual Cell Membranes. Ultrasound delivers chemicals across the ordinarily impermeable outer membranes of cells by transiently opening up holes in the cell membrane. This process has been called ‘‘sonoporation’’ because its effect on membranes is similar to the effects caused by electroporation. The work of Boa et al. (95) is a good introduction to this field because of its literature review and its coverage of the gamut of sonoportation’s achievements.