By G. Matthewson
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3 Characteristics of Two-Phase Flow Containing Nano-particles—A Study by the Present Authors From the image sequences, information on the velocities of nano-particles can be extracted. The statistical effect of Brownian motion on the ﬂowing speed of the mixed liquid is found small enough to be ignored as shown in Fig. 37 where most of the particles trajectories in the liquid are straight lines and parallel with the wall basically. Therefore, Brownian diffusive motion is ignorable. The distribution of particles velocities in the liquid under a small ﬂowing rate is much closer to that calculated from Eq ͑31͒ ͓85͔ when the width and depth of channels are big enough ͑about 2 mm͒ to ignore the effect of the surface force of the solid wall as shown in Fig.
Image contrast observed in acoustic microscopy can be related to the elastic properties at the surface as well as below the surface of the sample. Thus fringes are seen as an interference effect associated with waves that can be excited in the surface of a specimen. Interpretation of the contrast of these fringes is not a simple matter. One cannot simply say that a brighter area corresponds to a higher ͑or lower͒ density, or to a greater ͑or smaller͒ elastic modulus. Moreover, the contrast varies very sensitively with the distance between the lens and the surface of the specimen.
18. One arm acts as a driver while the other serves as a force detector. The driving arm activated by the ﬂuctuating voltage from a signal generator causes an oscillation in the frame. In the meantime, the second arm deﬂected by the oscillation produces a voltage signal proportional to its deﬂection. The deﬂection of the second arm in fact depends on two factors, the oscillation amplitude of the ﬁrst arm and the lateral force acting on the upper sample and the frame. As a result, the lateral or friction forces can be evaluated by comparing the input of the ﬁrst arm with the output signal from the second arm.