Cattle behaviour and welfare by Clive Phillips

By Clive Phillips

Livestock are one in every of our significant domesticated animals, a better mammal with advanced psychological and actual wishes. the good thing about a data of livestock behaviour capability veterinarians and stockpeople can understand irregular behaviour indicators for affliction analysis and indication of an insufficient atmosphere. This booklet replaces the booklet farm animals Behaviour, written via an analogous writer and released through Farming Press in 1993. The textual content has been revised and up to date and 4 new chapters on livestock welfare were additional. the most curiosity of many interpreting a e-book on behaviour is its relation to the welfare of the species, so the combo of welfare and behavior is a logical one

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This area, as well as the surrounding tissue, is well innervated (Taschke & Folsch, 1997). , 1998). , 1996). For permanent and readily visible marking, cattle are usually branded at about 9 to 12 months of age. , 1997). , 1994), but because of the limited number of possible markings, it can only be used to distinguish herds, rather than individuals within a herd. Metal or polyurethane tags can be inserted into the ear, but metal ones tend to damage the ear (Johnston & Edwards, 1996), and both will be removed if the cattle get them caught in hedges, etc.

The best aerial environment for calves is provided out of doors, as long as cold, damp conditions do not prevail. Social influences A potential impact on the welfare of the calf occurs when it is separated from its mother. , 1995). Feral cattle normally maintain cohesive matriarchal groups, with prolonged bonds formed between cow and calves. Since the bond between the calf and cow extends beyond provision of milk, weaning should be considered as occurring when the cow and calf are separated, which in dairy calves is normally at about one to 14 days of age, not when calves stop receiving milk, normally at about five to seven weeks of age.

However, scores are variable between individual veterinarians and a more objective measure of inadequate nutrition is needed. e. qxd 16/07/2002 09:20 Page 25 The welfare of beef cattle and draft oxen 25 cal requirement in an area over a prolonged period. The demand is usually a function of man’s activities, and most droughts can be considered man made. In contrast, an area with low rainfall is described as arid, but the ecology of the flora and fauna is adapted to the periodic absence of water.

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