By F. Melchers, A. R. Rolink (auth.), Andreas Radbruch Ph.D., Peter E. Lipsky MD (eds.)
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Extra info for Current Concepts in Autoimmunity and Chronic Inflammation
But even if allelic exclusion is strict, it is not unfailing. As hinted, especially in the case of the TCR alpha chain, rearrangement of one alpha chain may be followed by a rearrangement of a second one, and both chains may make it to the T cell surface (Hinz et al. 2001). Thus in exceptional cases, one T cell may express two distinct sets of T cell receptors, one speciﬁc for an autoantigen, the other against a foreign, microbial protein. Theory would predict that in these dual-receptor T cells, recognition of a microbial by one TCR set would co-activate the autoimmune potential represented by the second TCR.
1 Regulatory Suppression of Autoimmune T Cells— But How Do Suppressor T Cells Know? . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Autoantigen Retrouvé: Recognition/Presentation in the Target Organ . . 39 6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Abstract Immunological self-tolerance is maintained through diverse mechanisms, including deletion of autoreactive immune cells following confrontation with autoantigen in the thymus or in the periphery and active suppression by regulatory cells.
Showed directly for the ﬁrst time the co-existence of CNS autoantigen and speciﬁc autoreactive T cells in the same rodent thymus. The autoantigen was the calcium binding protein S-100β, which is expressed in astrocytes, rather than in myelin 28 H. Wekerle and myelin-binding oligodendrocytes. S-100β autoreactive T cells transfer inﬂammation in the CNS, as well as in the eye (Kojima et al. 1994). Besides astrocytes, however, S-100β is lavishly produced by certain thymus stroma cells, located preferentially in the thymic medulla (Kojima et al.