Colorants and Auxiliaries: Vol 2 Organic Chemistry and by J Shore

By J Shore

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Thus the balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties of a surfactant is a critical factor in determining its major characteristics. This is referred to as the hydrophile–lipophile balance, or HLB (the term ‘lipophile’, of course, being analogous to ‘hydrophobe’). Whilst the HLB value is of general use in expressing the characteristics of a surfactant, it is of particular value in describing the formation of emulsions. For some general purposes the HLB can be used qualitatively (referring, for instance, to low, medium or high HLB), but for more precise work it is preferable to use a quantifying scale.

These aminopolycarboxylates act as sequestering agents by forming complexes in which each metal ion is chelated into one or more five-membered rings. It is often assumed that one molecule of sequestering agent interacts with one metal ion and for many practical purposes this is a valid assumption. The nature of the complexes actually formed, however, may depend on other factors such as the pH of the medium. It is difficult to represent such structures in detail, particularly as water of solvation is usually involved.

In this area, the organic formic and acetic acids are of interest. Formic, of course, is a stronger acid than acetic. Hence, acetic acid has been traditionally the preferred choice for the adjustment of slightly acidic media, down to about pH 4, whereas formic was the choice below this level. It has been demonstrated, however, that for general purposes formic acid is preferred to acetic acid, particularly on economical and environmental grounds [9]. Formic acid has an extremely low BOD, being biodegraded to carbon dioxide and water.

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