Colombia: A Concise Contemporary History by Michael J. LaRosa, Germán R. Mejía, Pamela S. Murray

By Michael J. LaRosa, Germán R. Mejía, Pamela S. Murray

Written through top historians, this deeply trained and available e-book lines the heritage of Colombia thematically, protecting the prior centuries. In ten interlinked chapters, Michael J. LaRosa and Germán R. Mejía go away from extra average ways by way of proposing a historical past of political, social, and cultural accomplishments in the context of Colombia’s particular geographic and monetary realities. Their emphasis on cultural improvement, diplomacy, and way of life contrasts sharply with works that spotlight simply on Colombia’s violent prior or stay on a Colombian economic climate deeply depending on narcotics—a tragic country that hardly features. as an alternative, the authors emphasize Colombia’s striking nationwide harmony and patience because the early nineteenth-century wars for independence. together with a photograph essay, targeted chronology, and source advisor, this concise but thorough historical past can be a useful source for all readers looking a considerate, definitive interpretation of Colombia’s previous and present.

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Cartagena boycotted the meeting from the very beginning, and signs that the Congress would fail were clear early on. Only those representatives from Socorro, Neiva, Pamplona, Mariquita, Nóvita, and Santafé attended; those from Sogamoso and Mompox were finally accepted, although the representatives present at the initial meeting did not unanimously approve these two representatives. Disagreements quickly developed over sovereignty and regional representational power, which resulted in the closure of the Congress during the first months of February 1811.

This tactic showed no mercy toward any Peninsulares (Spaniards from the Iberian Peninsula) who fought against the patriots but pardoned all Americans, no matter their professed allegiance. Morillo arrived to find this decree still in effect and responded to it with even further cruelty against the Americans. Once in Santafé he established the three pillars of the Reign of Terror: the Sequestering Junta was in charge of confiscating all properties belonging to the patriots; the Pacification Tribunal banished those who supported the patriot cause from the city, either by imprisoning them or exiling them; and the Permanent War Council, which was charged with the more extreme task of trying and executing those found guilty of treason.

With respect to rebellious Quito, the viceroy decided to send individuals, reinforced by armed forces, who would “negotiate” with the junta. 1. Provinces, 1810 The failure of these meetings and the decision to force Quito to submit under armed pressure led to the second option: conspiracy. Several printed pamphlets circulated that explicitly favored the Quito junta. The viceroy subsequently issued an edict on September 28, 1809, making it an offense to carry “seditious” documents, threatening harsh punishments and prison for anyone caught with such documents.

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