Cell and Developmental Biology of Arabinogalactan-Proteins by Eugene A. Nothnagel, Antony Bacic, A.E. Clarke

By Eugene A. Nothnagel, Antony Bacic, A.E. Clarke

Arabinogalactan-proteins are disbursed through the plant state and are found in leaves, stems, roots, floral elements, and seeds. on the subcellular point, AGPs are localized at the plasma membrane, within the mobile wall, in secretory and endocytotic pathway organelles, in stylar and root secretions and within the medium of cultured cells. The frequent distribution of AGPs exhibits that they practice vital features. a spread of information concerning AGPs has been initiated and sustained via new experimental methods, together with the improvement of monoclonal antibody probes and cloning of cDNAs comparable to middle polypeptides. Regulated expression and different facts issues to the involvement of AGPs in plant reproductive improvement, trend formation, and somatic embryogenesis, in addition to within the strategies of phone department, mobilephone enlargement, and telephone demise. AGPs even have an value to undefined. One instance is gum arabic, an exudate from Acacia senegal, a mix of AGPs and polysaccharides which has special viscosity and emulsifying houses that experience ended in many makes use of within the nutrients in addition as different industries.

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1977, A carbohydratebinding arabinogalactan-protein from liquid suspension cultures of endosperm from Lolium multiflorum. Aust. 1. Plant Physiol. 4: 143-158. , Churms, S. C, Stephen, A. , Cohen, P. , and Fincher, G. , 1987, Fine structure of the arabinogalactan protein from Lolium multiflorum. Carbohydr. Res. 162: 85-93. Baldwin, T. C, McCann, M. , 1993, A novel hydroxyproline-deficient arabinogalactan-protein secreted by suspension cultured cells of Daucus carota. Plant Physiol. 103: 115-123.

9: 313323. Fincher, G. , Sawyer, W. , and Stone, B. , 1974, Chemical and physical properties of an arabinogalactan-peptide from wheat endosperm, Biochem. 1. 139: 535-545. Fincher, G. , Stone, B. , and Clarke, A. , 1983, Arabinogalactan-proteins: structure, biosynthesis and function, Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 34: 47-70. Gane, A. , Munro, S. L. , Howlett, G. , Clarke, A. , and Bacic, A. 1995, Structural analysis of the carbohydrate moiety of arabinogalactan-proteins from stigmas and styles of Nicotiana alata, Carbohyd.

It is also possible that some AGP genes give rise directly to shorter AGPs already "preprocessed" at the RNA level. 5. CHIMERIC AGPS AND RELATED MOLECULES Some AGPs show similarities with chimeric cell wall proteins that contain at least two different structural modules involved in different functions. Chimeric proteins have recently been described in the plant HRGP superfamily (Kieliszewski and Lamport 1994). These peculiar HRGPs include the stigma-specific extensin (Goldman et al 1992), the Chlamydomonas HRGP (Waffenschmidt et al 1993), the Volvox embryospecific extensin (Ertl et aI1992), the Volvox CAM (Huber and Sumper 1994) and the pollen extensin pex-l (Rubinstein et al 1995a b).

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