Between Empires: Brazilian Sugar in the Early Atlantic by Christopher Ebert

By Christopher Ebert

This research examines the wholesale exchange in sugar from Brazil to markets in Europe. The primary industry was once northwestern Europe, yet for a lot of the time among 1550 and 1630 Portugal used to be drawn into the clash among Habsburg Spain and the Dutch Republic. even with political stumbling blocks, the alternate persevered since it was once now not topic to monopolies and was once really frivolously regulated and taxed. The funding constitution was once hugely overseas, as Portugal and northwestern Europe exchanged groups of retailers who have been cellular and inter-imperial in either their composition and association. This end demanding situations an imperial or mercantilist standpoint of the Atlantic economic climate in its earliest stages.

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The introduction of new colonial products, including sugar, into the Portuguese trade economy did not necessitate a major restructuring of trade routes, at least not in the re-export phases. Amsterdam—grown 64 de Vries and van der Woude, The First Modern Economy, 368, 370, 419–20. For a description of the early efforts of the Dutch to retrieve salt in America, see: Cornelis C. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and on the Wild Coast 1580–1680 (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1971). 65 de Vries and van der Woude, The First Modern Economy, 406–7.

85; Parte II, maço 14, no. 119; maço 16, no. 105, maço 16, no. 150, maço 17, no. 138, maço 18, no. 128, maço 29, no. 189, maço 29, no. 194. 38 Pohle, Deutschland und die überseeische Expansion Portugals, 104–7, 255–6. , Die Fugger in Spanien und Portugal bis 1560: Dokumente, vol. 34, Schriften der Philosophischen Fakultäten der Universität Augsburg (Munich: Verlag Ernst Vögel, 1990), 490–4. It is probably impossible to reconstruct the total debts of the Portuguese crown at this time. In the case of the Casa da Mina, Fugger loans represented a substantial investment.

These carried 120 tons of wine and 1,081 crates of sugar. An Italian, Giovanni Batista, arranged for the import of much of this sugar, but Portuguese merchants actually owned much of it, and Portuguese ships carried it. Portuguese cargoes held much more value than previously. Additionally, other semi-luxury goods now appeared amongst cargoes in Portuguese ships. The expanding Atlantic trading empire allowed Portuguese merchants to acquire more capital and export more valuable products. 50 Nevertheless, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, direct trade between Portugal and England was relatively modest, no matter how propitious the circumstances.

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