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Extra resources for Atomic Force Microscopy - Investigns. Into Biology - From Cell to Protein
Charge distribution measured by AFM may not fully correspond to the real charge distribution (Lambert, Guthmann & Saint-Jean, 2003). A “contrast reversal” artifact is an effect which causes wrong height determination. , 1998). Sometimes researchers publish articles about new effects and others claim that the observed effects are due to AFM-related artifacts. , 2005). e. they claim that the observed effect is due to local anodic oxidation, an artifact of Kelvin force microscopy. , 2009). The purpose of this chapter is to show different AFM artifacts relevant to biological specimens, explain their reasons and present a way to avoid them.
Ordinary cantilevers with tips r ~ 10 nm (Multi75Al, NSG, CSG) and ultrasharp tips (NTI Europe) were employed. A critical parameter for any AFM measurement is a set point. The set point value (SP) is the ratio between the amplitude of oscillation during scanning A and the free oscillation amplitude near the surface A0. Let us define also SP0 value as a maximal value of SP which can be used to observe a normal (“true”) image. If SP > SP0, cantilever will lose contact. The SP value for noninvasive measurements should be slightly lower than SP0.
5463, pp. 143–146. ; et al. (2010). Contrast inversion in non-contact Dynamic Scanning Force Microscopy: What is high and what is low? ULTRAMICROSCOPY, Vol. 110, No. 7, pp. ; Cisneros, D. ; Muller, D. J. & Hinterdorfer, P. (2007). Free energy of membrane protein unfolding derived from single-molecule force measurements. Biophys. , Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. 930–937. ; Kappl, M. & Butt, H. J. (2006). Modified atomic force microscope for high-rate dynamic force spectroscopy. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol.