Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 19 by J.H.S. Blaxter, Frederick S. Russell, Maurice Yonge (Eds.)

By J.H.S. Blaxter, Frederick S. Russell, Maurice Yonge (Eds.)

Quantity 25 of this authoritative evaluate sequence keeps the excessive ordinary set by way of the editors long ago. Marine biologists in all places have come to worth and revel in the big variety of thought-provoking papers written by means of invited specialists. during this quantity are experiences of 4 animal teams which span the full diversity of the marine meals chain. The position of parasites in ecology is a transforming into curiosity and the parasites of zooplankton are defined intimately for the 1st time. points of thegastropods, cephalopods and fish existence also are tested intimately.

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The length of the tube varies according to the extended size of the body (about five times longer than the contracted size) of the phoronid species and to the type of substratum. The smallest occurs on hard substrata, particularly in shells, and the largest on sandy bottoms. Such differences can also be observed within the species according to the burrowing potential of the substratum, The greatest recorded length and diameter of the tube in the different species may be summarized as follows: P .

The opposite observations of those authors suggest that the predation on phoronids obviously needs further study, particularly that by fish and gastropods, probably the most important consumers. My opinion is supported by my own incomplete observations on predation of P. psammophila in a high density area. E . Geographical distribution The geographical distribution of the Phoronida is well known in several substantial areas of all oceans and seas (Fig. 31), and our knowledge has increased recently as benthic studies have developed.

27). 27. scimmwph,ila during the, burrowing process (from ('. Pourreau, unpublished observations). + Swelling movennent; A motion of hydraulic fluid; A muscle rontraction. 24 h the lophophore remains out of the substrate. During both movements the tube is concomitantly being secreted, and during this sticky phase various particles of the immediate environment adhere to the tube, which therefore reflects the nature of the substratum. g. , and fine pebbles. There was a great amount of controversy among previous authors concerning the selection of substratum particles for the tube.

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