# A Personal History of CESR and CLEO at Cornell by Karl Berkelman

By Karl Berkelman

This useful ebook is a old account of the Cornell Electron garage Ring and its major detector facility, CLEO, from their beginnings within the past due 1970's until eventually the tip of information assortment at particle energies above the brink for B meson creation in June 2001. The CESR electron–positron collider used to be the fruits of a chain of electron accelerators developed on the Cornell Laboratory of Nuclear reports, beginning in 1945. dimension of the goods of the e+e– collisions was once played with the multipurpose CLEO gear, equipped and operated by way of the CLEO collaboration, which consisted of approximately 2 hundred school, employees and graduate scholars from over 20 universities. This account relies in most cases at the author's reminiscences as a player.

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Extra resources for A Personal History of CESR and CLEO at Cornell

Example text

44 25. In the circuit of Fig. 5 mA for IX = 1:3 mA. Determine the required IS . 26. For what value of IX in Fig. 44, does R1 carry a current equal to IX =2? Assume IS = 3  10,16 A. 27. We have received the circuit shown in Fig. 45 and wish to determine R1 and IS . 45 ments indicate that IX = 1 mA ! VX = 1:2 V and IX = 2 mA ! VX = 1:8 V. Calculate R1 and IS . 28. The circuit illustrated in Fig. 46 employs two identical diodes with IS = 5  10,16 A. 46 Calculate the voltage across R1 for IX = 2 mA.

The breakdown resulting from a high voltage (and hence a high electric field) can occur in any material. A common example is lightning, in which case the electric field in the air reaches such a high level as to ionize the oxygen molecules, thus lowering the resistance of the air and creating a tremendous current. 1 Zener Breakdown The depletion region in a pn junction contains atoms that have lost an electron or a hole and, therefore, provide no loosely-connected carriers. However, a high electric field in this region may impart enough energy to the remaining covalent electrons to tear them from their bonds [Fig.

Res ,1 . 89) BR Wiley/Razavi/Fundamentals of Microelectronics Sec. cls v. 2006] June 30, 2007 at 13:42 45 (1) PN Junction 45 Using this value along with L = 11:9 nH in Eq. 90) An oscillator whose frequency can be varied by an external voltage (VR in this case) is called a “voltage-controlled oscillator” and used extensively in cellphones, microprocessors, personal computers, etc. 2 GHz. 2 GHz. In summary, a reverse-biased pn junction carries a negligible current but exhibits a voltagedependent capacitance.