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Additional resources for A Concise Encyclopedia of the United Nations, 2nd Edition
However, to invoke the right of self-defence, the existence of an aggression is not sufficient; the decisive notion of an armed attack remains undefined. III. The definition of Aggression in International Criminal Law Criminal provisions have to focus naturally on possible actions of individual persons, and could not take up a whole complex of factual events like an aggression. “ [emphasis through italics added by author] The act of aggression itself is not defined. In its commentary on the draft, the ILC does not however refer to the notion of aggression in Art.
89 %, based upon data for the years 1938-40. From the beginning, the United States insisted on a reduction of this ceiling rate with the argument that it would not be in the interest of the Organization that one single state bears such a heavy burden, thereby leading to a high dependence of the UN. 33 %. 00 %. 32 percentage points which could easily compensate the difference of 5 percentage points caused by the United States. During the second half of the 1990s, the United States demanded a further reduction of its assessment rate to 22 and 20 %.
Intensity of the conflict Phases of conflicts and of international action following the Agenda for Peace by Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, 1992 Conflict Time Preventive diplomacy Preventive deployment 12 Peacemaking Peace-keeping Peace-building Good offices, Negotiations, Peaceenforcement, sanctions Observers, troops... Elections, police, democracy, refugees resettlement... Agenda for Peace According to this model, the international community could intervene in a conflict, - before a crisis escalates into (armed) conflict (→ “preventive diplomacy”), - to terminate the fighting during a conflict (“peace-making”), - to secure a truce or an armistice after the conflict (“peacekeeping”), and - to consolidate an armistice into a lasting peace (“post-conflict peace-building”).