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Parallel feeders, usually suspended on the other side of the support structures (Fig. 20) to increase the equivalent cross section of the catenary, are made of Cu or Al (with Al–Fe wire), as are the protective ground wires used for connecting bonded [Fig. 20(a)] or grounded [Fig. 20(b)] support structures. Typical parameters of overhead catenaries are given in Table 7. Conductor rails in third-rail [Fig. 2(b)] or fourth-rail systems are made of steel, aluminum (low wear resistance), or aluminum with a steel surface (good conductivity and wear resistance).
Subways, light-rail systems (on dedicated track on bridges and in excavations avoiding level crossings with roads), and modern GROUND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 5 streetcars (separated from road traffic on streets, with traffic-light priority) yield the highest traffic capacity (Table 4). Low-floor, easy-access streetcars allow one to use traditional routes and drive smoothly into city centers. Nonconventional solutions include people-movers, mini-trams, and fully automated guided transport (Lille, France, 1983; Docklands, London, 1987; SkyTrain, Vancouver, 1986; Automated Skyway Express, Jacksonville, FL, 1992) on special guideways or monorails, used over short distances in areas where efficient passenger transport is in heavy demand (as in airports and at expositions) and needs to be integrated effectively with other transport modes (such as the Chiba Urban Monorail System in Japan).
Booster-transformer systems more efficient if provided with a return wire—Fig. 5(b), which allow one to reduce induction disturbance effects in telephone networks Ac systems with special three-phase–two-phase transformers (Scott, Leblanc, or Woodridge type) installed in the TS [Fig. 5(c)], to reduce asymmetry in the PUS Autotransformer systems [Fig. 5(d)], most expensive but most efficient, yielding lower voltage drops because the rail–catenary voltage U/2 is half the substation voltage U, so longer distances between TSs are possible and the system is suitable for HSRs or for heavy freight traffic (2 × 25 kV at 50 Hz).